Talking about early childhood for parents who have young children is very interesting and fun. Moreover it is first child. Early childhood is an amazing time for development of physical motor, cognitive, emotional, and social. During this time baby is into a very limited world, both of limited skills and ability. Watching new development of a baby in physical motor, cognitive or language is an amazing and the happiest thing for parents and nanny.
The developments of modern psychology today try to understand and explain about how people grow and develop for a life time. Researcher continues to study extensively about the genetic influence to children’s development.
Let see closer about how the early childhood development is.
Some important things about early childhood growth and early childhood development is physical, cognitive and language.
Parents usually wait for important moments of physical development about early childhood when the child start to crawl and walk. The development process of child’s physical ability occurs regularly means that a child is not able to do a thing before he can do another thing. For examples, a baby before he is able to walk he learns to crawl first. It is important for parents to realize that achievement of every child is varies. Some children are able to walk in early age or otherwise.
Motor Skill Development
As the nervous systems grow and develop to be mature. It is signed with the ability of a child in doing more complicated actions. Sometimes parents and nanny worry with the progress of child’s motor skill development, some accordance with the level age, some even faster , some are very late. No need to worry as long there is no serious problem with the child’s motor skill development system.
There are 2 kinds of motor skills those are gross motor skills and fine motor skills.
The gross motor skills cover large muscles like arms and legs. Skills that need gross motor are walking, running, climbing, balance, and coordination. For an expert of evaluation, gross motor skill is strength, movement quality, and movement combination.
The fine motor skill covers smaller muscles like fingers, toes, eyes and other parts. Skill that needs fine motor are writing, drawing, holding a ball, throwing a ball, waving hands as well as catching.
Not only the physical growth which is incredible, early childhood also experienced an extraordinary mental development. Include within the cognitive development. The cognitive ability relate to memory ability, logical, problems solving skills, and continuously thinking ability throughout ones life. According to an expert, Piaget with Alfred Binet in their research said that cognitive ability of a child is not much different from adults can even be more , that make it different is the way of thinking. Moreover Piaget said that children is just like ”little scientist” who try to understand the world with their own way , not only learning but also absorb the information given passively.
The stages of cognitive development are 4, first the sensor motor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal operational stage.
The sensor motor stage is stage /period between birth to age 2 years in which the children knowledge in the world is limited to their sensor perception and the motor activity only.
Whereas in the preoperational is period between age 2 years to 6 years in which children learn to use the language. In period of preoperational children are not able yet to understand about concrete logic and mentally children are not able to manipulate information and are not able to accept other people perspective.
During the concrete operational stage, children more understand mental operational. Children are able to think logically about real event/ concrete but still experience difficulties to understand concept of abstract and hypotheses. This period occurs between ages 6 years to 12 years.
The Formal Operational Stage children are already able to develop ability to think abstractly. They can think logic, deductive reasoning, and systematic planning. It occurs between ages 12 years to mature.
Research shows that habits of parents talk to their children play important role in child’s language development. Thus, although the child is not able yet to talk or response with words, by talking with them frequently is a positive thing that parents should do.
Research also shows that since the baby inside mom’s womb it is able to identify the patterns of talk and hear mom’s voice. At four months old baby can distinguish sound and read the lips movement.
Stages in Language Development.
About early childhood in language development, developing from the simplest to the most complex result in some sentences.
Babbling is first stage in child’s language development. The stage is known as pre linguistic babbling or cooing stage. It occurs between age 3 months to 9 months old signed with a baby that can make vocal sound such as ooooo or aaaaaa. Entering age of 5 months old baby is able to add consonant sound such as ma-ma- ma, pa- pa-pa, ba- ba- ba .
The stages occurs between age 10-13 months old. The stage is known as one word or holophase stage of language development. During this period baby is really capable to say the first word. However, although they can only say one word, but they understand the language two times faster than the ability to say single words.
A child is able to make simple sentences using 2 words. Usually consists of 2 nouns and verbs, such as ”big bear !”, ” where mommy?”It occurs at age 18 months old
Entering age 2 years old, children are able to say multi words sentences that consist of subject and predicate. Examples” mommy is nice”, “want to drink”.
With increasing the children’s age, they continuously learn more new words every day. When entering age 5 years old, children already have more than 10.000 vocabularies or even more.