Until now, the child exploitation with mode of child labor still occurs. UNICEF reported more than 150 million children (5-14 years) or about 16% children of this age are workers in developing countries. (UNICEF 2011 State of the World’s Children). While ILO estimated that in worldwide there are about 215 million working children under the age of 18 years, mostly are full time workers.
The details are in sub Saharan African 1 in 4 children aged 5 – 17 years, 1 in 8 children in Asia Pacific and 1 in 10 children working in Latin America ( ILO 2010 Facts on Child Labor)
Whereas the article 32 of United Nation’s Convention o the Rights of the Child said clearly that “States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.”
What is the real cause of child exploitation? Many answer to this. Being able to see closer about this issue will help to reduce and will finally end up the practice of child exploitation.
The main cause of child labor is business of company in the worldwide. Especially companies in poor and developing country. The biggest influence is money. Many factories placed strategically in poor areas. By hiring them with low wages, children will finally help out the family economy.
There is interesting from studies that have been done by HCO (Human Capital Development and Operations Policy) said that the cause of child labor is acceleration of migration from village to city especially in developing countries.
It said acceleration of this migration that still happens to this day causing family to leave their job as farmers trying to find economic opportunities in the city. Not only leaving the family but also farms that being less productive.
When the practice of child exploitation still occurs, what should be done to reduce or possibly eliminate it.
Studies in HCO about child labor further say there are some businesses that can be done to overcome this include:
Improving the quality of education to realize that education is the child future investment which is indirectly also futures of parents.
No one can deny that education is a way to break the chain of poverty. There needs effort to realize parents that education is an important asset for the child future. If there still parents who exploit children under the age in order to work for helping the family economy then it is time for parents to realize that it is not going to help a better future when the child is older.
The role of government in providing subsidies to help poor people that employ the child to remain in school without having to involve the child in family economy. This subsidy can be in form of income or nutrition supplements.
For poor families in many countries in African send the child to school is likely to eliminate the source of family income. Not only removes a source of income but they also have to spend extra for school child Therefore there needs support from the government to subsidize the poor people, so that sending their child to school will not eliminate their income and be burden of the family. For example free education, income support or nutrition supplement for children.
Cooperate with international organizations especially the organizations that dedicate to improve living quality and the child future.
The government can cooperate with United Nation through UNICEF and ILO. Many aid from developed countries channeled through these two institutions. They are very experienced in handling many cases child labor in different countries.